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Tag Archive: Wastewater

  1. Reclaiming Water To Maintain Future Economic Growth

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    The Challenge

    How do you provide a consistent, high quality supply of water when you have a large volume ethanol distiller located in your backyard? The city of Fargo, ND came up with the perfect solution: reclaim water through the municipal wastewater treatment plant!

    The History

    The wastewater treatment plant in Fargo, North Dakota has an auxiliary effluent re-use facility constructed specifically to produce reverse osmosis quality water destined for ethanol production. A local corn to ethanol distiller, Tharaldson Ethanol, requires approximately 1,000,000 gallons (3.8 million liters) of reverse osmosis water per day above the wastewater treatment plant’s normal processing volumes. Fargo’s wastewater control systems manager, Jeff Hoff, manages the effluent re-use facility to ensure this additional volume is met on a daily basis.

    The Problem

    A key component of the effluent re-use facility is the ultra-filtration process, which uses 0.4μ polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) membranes with an upper pH limit of 10.0. These membranes are fouled primarily with petroleum sulfonates and bacterial secretions. Particularly in cold weather, the upstream BOD step has frequent “upsets,” where the bacteria die and secrete a water soluble foulant that adheres strongly to the PVDF polymer and significantly increases the trans-membrane pressure (TMP). These “upsets” must be resolved quickly to ensure a plentiful supply of pure water.

    The Test

    In order to determine the optimal cleaning regimen to resolve these upsets, Jeff systematically evaluated the performance of twenty different cleaners and hundreds of different combinations and concentrations, including commonly used commodities and many formulated membrane cleaners.

    The Solution

    Jeff discovered that Micro-90®, a formulated cleaner from International Products Corporation (IPC), stood out because it performed better than all of the commodities and other formulated membrane cleaners, particularly on the bacterial secretions. What Jeff found most impressive is that this formulated cleaner worked effectively without the use of phosphates, silicates, and strong alkalis, at a membrane compatible pH of only 9.5, and at a 0.3 percent concentration.

    The Product

    Micro-90® is a mild, yet powerful, multipurpose, alkaline cleaning concentrate that is used for membrane cleaning as well as in laboratories, industrial applications, and critical cleaning processes. A unique chelating detergent, Micro-90® contains anionic and non-ionic ingredients which combine to produce a variety of cleaning actions. Micro-90® is compatible with UF, RO, Ceramic and NF Systems.

    The Long-Term Success

    This same formulation has been in use at Fargo’s effluent re-use facility since October 2010. Some of the original PVDF membranes are still used and continue to see significant TMP drops after cleaning. Although the bacterial upsets cannot be prevented, their fouling can be resolved in a predictable manner with the use of this formulated product.

    The engineers at the facility recognize that using Micro-90® for regularly scheduled preventative maintenance and cleaning of the membranes proves to be an effective, safe, and economical method of keeping the plant running efficiently and the water flowing continually. Based on its effectiveness, safe profile, compatibility and economical cost per use, they have recommended Micro-90® to design engineers at similar effluent re-use facilities.

    Read more about cleaning filter membranes here:
    How To Choose the Proper Membrane Cleaner
    Make Your Membranes Last…A Simple 10 Step Guide
  2. Make Your Membranes Last…A Simple 10 Step Guide

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    What Are Membranes?
    Membranes are filters used to separate different substances. They are used for a variety of applications throughout many industries, including wastewater treatment, food & beverage processing, pharmaceutical manufacturing and laboratory operations. “A membrane is a thin layer of semi-permeable material that separates substances when a driving force is applied across the membrane. Membrane processes are increasingly used for removal of bacteria, microorganisms, particulates, and natural organic material…”  (https://www.mrwa.com/WaterWorksMnl/Chapter%2019%20Membrane%20Filtration.pdf)

    Why Clean Membranes?
    Once membranes become fouled from use they become less effective. Clean membranes allow for the proper flow of water and are essential for maintaining an optimal flux rate. Therefore, it is important to implement a regular membrane cleaning regimen to help ensure that they are operating effectively. Instituting a regular maintenance program for cleaning membranes can help extend membrane life, saving money on equipment and operating costs.

    Where Do I Begin?
    Establishing a regular membrane cleaning regimen can be overwhelming. There are so many variables to consider from choosing the right detergent to figuring how much cleaner to use and how often to clean.

    Follow this simple 10 step guide to get started:

    1. When should I clean membranes?
    Use a 10/10/10 rule to determine cleaning frequency. Membranes should be cleaned whenever flux rate decreases by 10%, trans-membrane pressure (TMP) increases by 10%, or permeate water quality decreases by 10%.

    2. What cleaner should I use?
    Using the proper detergent can greatly affect the outcome. The soils fouling the membranes directly impact your choice of cleaner. Read more here.

    3. What type of membranes are you using?
    It’s always important to check with the membrane manufacturer for any specific operating conditions.

    4. Should I soak before cleaning?
    This will depend upon the condition of the membranes. An initial soak may be required if membranes are extremely fouled.

    5. How much cleaner do I use?
    The amount of cleaner used will vary based upon which detergent you are using and upon the parameters of your membrane system. Fill equipment up to 50% of its total volume to provide low pressure and high flux for optimal cleaning. The manufacturer of the cleaner should be able to provide specific guidelines.

    6. Should I use a quick or slow flow rate?
    Start with a slow flow rate to prevent any suspended soils from re-fouling the membranes. Then, gradually increase the flow up to its maximum rate.

    7. Do I recirculate?
    This helps to effectively clean the membrane. Recirculating provides agitation in and around the membrane. Air bubbles are introduced from recirculation, creating a turbulent flow. This turbulence causes a subtle, pulsating change in pressure at the membrane surface that assists in dislodging foulants. Recirculation may also increase the temperature of the cleaning solution by a few degrees, which bolsters detergency.

    8. What’s the proper temperature?
    As with any cleaning application, heating the cleaning solution will improve results. Check manufacturer’s guidelines for maximum operating temperatures for both the membranes and the cleaners.

    9. Do I need to rinse?
    A thorough rinsing step is important to make sure that all of the soils, as well as any excess cleaning solution, have been removed from the system.

    10. Can I set it and forget it?
    Absolutely not! It’s important to monitor the process to check for any abnormalities or changes in temperature, pressure or pH. However, using a safe and compatible cleaner allows more forgiveness in the cleaning regimen if operator error is introduced.

    Make Your Membranes Last
    Cleaning membranes on a regular basis restores membrane flux which aids in prolonging membrane life. Membranes are extremely expensive. Keeping them clean and functioning optimally saves money.

    When selecting a membrane cleaner find a manufacturer that provides a range of proven products and offers free technical support, free product samples, customer referrals and on-site assistance. International Products Corporation (IPC) offers a full line of membrane cleaners that have been proven to restore 100% membrane flux and extend membrane life.

    One of IPC’s customers treats industrial wastewater generated by the engine plant of a major automotive manufacturer. At this facility, up to 168,000 gallons of wastewater are treated per day using an ultrafiltration (UF) membrane system. They have used IPC’s Micro-90® Concentrated Cleaning Solution to clean their membranes for over 14 years with 100% flux recovery. Prior to using Micro-90®, their initial two-step process used caustic materials and acids. A 1% solution of Micro-90® not only removes the organics and metals that blind the membranes, but it provides savings through reduced energy, reduced chemical use and less downtime. They did not need to replace any of their membranes for over 14 years, representing a cost savings of over $500,000.

    Download IPC’s CIP Guidelines for Membrane Cleaning for help in setting up a membrane cleaning regimen. Establishing a regular cleaning schedule for your membranes can add years to their life!

     

  3. How To Choose the Proper Membrane Cleaner

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    Cleaning filter membranes is a challenge faced by water treatment facilities across a variety of industries. In addition to municipal water treatment plants, wastewater treatment occurs in the automotive, metalworking, food & beverage, textile, parts cleaning, oil & gas, pharmaceutical, industrial manufacturing, and electronics industries. Keeping filter membranes clean is a concern to all of them.

    Once membranes become fouled from use they become less effective. Clean membranes allow for the proper flow of water. Keeping membranes clean is essential to maintaining an optimal flux rate and helps ensure that the treatment plant is operating effectively. Therefore, it is important to implement a regular membrane cleaning regimen.

    Finding the right membrane cleaner for the job can be a challenge. Using the right membrane cleaner is a good economic decision as it minimizes downtime and prolongs membrane life. Since membranes are extremely expensive, most facilities try their best to keep them operational for as long as possible.

    What should treatment plant operators seek in a membrane cleaner?

    • Cleaners should restore membrane flux. This will help prolong the life of the membrane.
    • Products that will reduce the cleaning frequency needed. This will lead to reduced down time and lower costs for cleaning products.
    • Cleaners that are safe for the membranes and the environment.
    • Products that are easy to use.

    Many membranes are sensitive to harsh chemicals and extreme pH levels. It is important for treatment plant operators to choose cleaners that will not be harmful to the membranes. Many specialty cleaners with mild pH ranges and safe ingredients are formulated to be effective, non-harmful cleaning agents for membranes.

    What types of soils are present?

    Different types of soils require different types of treatment. Plant operators must also consider the type of soil found in the water that is being treated.

    Alkaline cleaners dissolve oils and greases. These types of soils are often found in industrial manufacturing facilities. An alkaline cleaner that also contains chelants can suspend metals and minerals to restore membrane flux.

    Acid based cleaners are excellent at dissolving scale, like calcium carbonate or iron oxide. But, many acid cleaners, such as sulfuric, hydrochloric, and phosphoric, are hazardous. Citric acid cleaners are much safer and have a broader range of filter compatibilities. Citric acid cleaners that also contain surfactants can go after many oils and greases that might be present in addition to scale.

    In the food processing industry, soils may contain proteins and starches. Enzymatic cleaners are an excellent choice for targeting these soils.

    Most foulants are combinations of various soils. Choosing a formulated cleaner with multifunctional ingredients is usually the best solution.

    There are so many variables that can exist in choosing the right cleaning product for each facility. Treatment plant operators can benefit greatly from working with specialty cleaner manufacturers that can offer them technical guidance and provide them with a variety of products to best meet their needs. When selecting a membrane cleaner find a company that provides a range of proven products and offers free technical support, free product samples, customer referrals and on-site assistance.

    Read this article about how one municipal treatment plant keeps their membranes clean and functional.

    More information about membrane cleaning can be found on International Products Corporation’s website. Contact our technical specialists for assistance in choosing the right membrane cleaner for your operation.

  4. International Products Corporation Features Membrane Cleaners at WEFTEC

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    International Products Corporation will be exhibiting at WEFTEC, October 1 – 4, 2017, at the McCormick Center in Chicago IL.  We invite you to visit us at Booth #1362.

    Learn how to save time, energy and labor costs on membrane cleaning, and equipment maintenance.

    Free product samples are available for testing!

     Click to Download

Detergent Selection Guide

= Used ; = Preferred
SOILS Micro-90® Micro® Green Clean Micro® A07 Surface-Cleanse/930® LF2100® Zymit® Low-Foam Zymit® Pro
Adhesives
Biofilm
Biological soils: Blood, Feces, Mucous, Sebum, Sweat, Urine
Dyes, Inks
Eggs, Butter, Fruit Stains
Emulsifiers
Fat
Fingerprints
Flavor, Fragrances
Gelatin
Gels
Grass
Insoluble Salts
Milkstone
Oils
Oxides
Paraffins
Petrolatum
Proteins
Scale
Shop Dusts, Soldering Flux
Silicons
Starch
Tar
Tissue
Titanium Dioxides